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Image by Lukas Blazek


Official name: Republic of Lithuania

Capital: Vilnius

Land area: 65.300 sq km

Population (2021): 2.8 million

Head of state: President Gitanas Nausėda (since July 2018)

National language: Lithuanian

Currency: Euro (EUR). Euro area member since 1 January 2015

European Union member country: since 1 May 2004

Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea.

Official language

Lithuanian. 78,5 per cent of all Lithuanians, alongside their own language, are proficient in one or more foreign languages. The most commonly spoken foreign language in Lithuania is Russian – spoken by 63 per cent of inhabitants. However, a constantly expanding group of Lithuanians (especially young people) know English, French, German or Spanish.


2.8 million inhabitants (2021). 86.8 per cent among them Lithuanian nationals, 5.6 per cent – Polish, 4.5 per cent – Russian. In Lithuania, there are around 58 thousand foreigners who live here with a residence permit.

Political system

Lithuania is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - and the head of state - the president - who appoints the prime minister. The Parliament is a single-chamber legislative body. The country is divided into 60 municipalities, with directly-elected mayors. The President of the Republic of Lithuania is Gitanas Nausėda.

Neighbour countries

Lithuania has a border with Latvia, Belarus, Poland and the Russian Federation (the area of Kaliningrad). The total length of the Lithuanian border is 1 732 km. The length of the Baltic Sea coast is 90,66 km. Lithuanian borders with Belarus and the Russian Federation are also outside the borders of the EU.


Official name: Republic of Indonesia

Capital: Jakarta

Land area: 1,916,906.77 sq km

Population (2019): 268.1 million

Head of state: President Joko Widodo (since October 2014)

National language: Bahasa Indonesia

Currency: Rupiah (IDR)

GDP (2019): IDR 15,833.9 trillion

GDP per capita (2019): IDR 59.1 million


The Republic of Indonesia is located between the continents of Asia and Australia. It comprises 17 000 islands, with 34 provinces spreading over five main islands and four archipelagos. The five main islands include Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. The four archipelagos are Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku. 

Apart from its vast territory, Indonesia has a dense population and is rich in natural resources. It is also rich in cultural diversity, with each region having its own unique cultural characteristics, local language, dance, custom and costume. On 2 October 2009, UNESCO inscribed Indonesian batik on its Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Demographic profile

Indonesia’s population reached 268.1 million in 2019, up from 238.5 million in 2010. The population growth rate was 1.31 percent.11 The most populous province in 2019 was West Java (49.317 million), while the least populous province was West Papua (959,600), which is located in the far eastern region of Indonesia.

Economic profile

Indonesia is ASEAN’s largest economy. Its GDP in 2019 was IDR 15,833.9 trillion, a growth of more than six percent from the IDR 14,838.3 trillion achieved in 2017.14 Since 2014, the Indonesian government has been pushing ahead with its plans to make Indonesia a manufacturing hub for Southeast Asia. In 2018, it launched the Making Indonesia 4.0 Roadmap, which aims to boost the industry’s competitiveness by incorporating major innovations such as artificial intelligence, robotics and sensor technology. The roadmap focuses on the capability upgrading of five manufacturing sectors, namely F&B, automotive, electronics, chemicals, and textile and garment.

Consumer market

Indonesia is the fourth-largest consumer market in the world, in terms of population size, behind China, India and the United States. Indonesia’s mushrooming middle class is also becoming a dominant force within its consumer market. These consumers are likely to spend more on necessities as well as discretionary items, such as travel, welfare, and leisure items on a per capita basis, and prioritize convenience, with a greater reliance on modern trade outlets and e-commerce deliveries.

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